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首頁產業資訊生物經濟生物經濟「2017 未來科技展」技術專題報導─強健、少用水、高產量的益全香米

「2017 未來科技展」技術專題報導─強健、少用水、高產量的益全香米

來源 : 未來科技展
update : 2018/01/02
技術名稱: 強健、少用水、高產量的益全香米
The new Yi Quan rice with strong, low water consumption, high yield
 
計畫單位: 中央研究院 國立中興大學 農委會農業試驗所
Academia Sinica National Chung-Hsing University Taiwan Agriculture Research Institute, Council of Agriculture
 
技術說明: 1.近年來,由於全球氣候及環境變遷影響農業生產,糧食安全備受關注。肥料缺乏及環境逆境同列為影響產量的二個重要限制因子。強化根系以提高水分及營養的吸收,為水稻在逆境中維持生長及產量的關鍵因素。

2.人類追求良好米質 (口感、香氣) 的育種過程中,往往也犧牲原始稻種中抗逆境的特質。於是育種學家積極利用雜交育種方式,將抗逆境相關的遺傳基因導入良質米中。

3.結合生物科技及傳統育種的分子標誌輔助選種 (MAS) 方法,可以快速且準確地篩選雜交後代是否具有有利的目標基因,被認為是提高作物分子育種效率的重要策略,目前已廣為全球及台灣的育種學家使用。

4.GA2 oxidase (GA2 ox)是賀爾蒙gibberellic acid (GA)的代謝酵素,我們的研究顯示,GA2 ox活性降低能降低水稻高度、增加根系發育、逆境耐性及產量。因此,GA2ox基因為培育耐低營養、增加抗逆境能力、及提高產量的新品種水稻的理想分子標誌。

5.在連續回交過程中,我們已利用MAS方法篩檢具有目標基因型的後代,讓回交後代不僅保留益全香米(TNG71)的血統,進一步新增野生型的GA2 ox 的基因。選育出的優良新品種,根系發育在節水栽培情況下更加強健,而在灌水及缺水情況下,均較原來的益全香米有更高產量及商業化的潛力。
 
1.Food security has become increasingly important worldwide in recent years primarily due to rapid increase in world population and worsening global climate changes. Manipulation of root system architecture to optimize water and nutrient uptake is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environments, and root biomass has been shown to associate with grain yield.

2.During the domestication and breeding of rice, due to too much emphasis on good grain quality (e.g., palatability and aroma), many genes that confer stress tolerance have been lost. The current rice breeding strategy tries to resume those stress tolerant genets into elite rice varieties.

3.Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers rapid and precise selection of beneficial target genes from a large numbers of rice varieties for use as breeding parents, and has been considered as a highly efficient approach in molecular breeding of crops.

4.Defective GA catabolic enzyme - GA2 oxidase gene (GA2ox), could reduce plant height, increase root systems, and enhance abiotic stress tolerance and yield in rice. Therefore, GA2ox gene is considered a useful molecular marker for breeding of rice exhibiting low-nutrient and abiotic-stress tolerance and high yield potential.

5.We have successfully integrated the GA2ox6 locus from the wild rice variety N22 into the elite Taiwanese aroma variety TNG71. The new variety is more drought tolerant, with grain yield significantly greater than the recurrent parent TNG71 under both normal and water deficit conditions.
 
科學突破性:
1. 對於台灣良質米-益全香米(TNG71)產量及生產過程主要栽培缺點之突破性改良。

2. 首次以分子標誌輔助回交法進行精準育種,將野生型中抗逆境的GA2 ox 基因成功導入益全香米中,選育出具耐低營養、增加抗逆境能力及提高產量潛力的水稻新品種。

3. 新選育的益全香米衍生品種,根系發育在節水栽培情況下更加強健,而在灌水及缺水情況下,均較原來的益全香米增加了30%以上之產量及具有商業化的潛力。
 
產業應用性: 1. 益全香米是台灣第一個具有商品名的良質米,也是第一個將稻米單價大幅提升的米種。其每年栽種面積仍超過一千公頃,其商品產值約44億元。但不耐乾旱及病害與易倒伏為其最大的缺陷,往往造成農民最大的損失。

2. 利用分子標誌育種培育耐低肥料、增加抗逆境能力、及提高產量的新品種益全香米,可增加至少30%以上的產量,意即可以提升產值至57億元以上,增加至少13億元以上的商品產值。

3. 具有耐乾旱與病害逆境潛力的益全香米新衍生品種,除提升產量外,亦可節省水、肥料及農藥之施用,可大幅降低農民的栽種成本。對於環境保護的價值更是無價。